Here’s a list of English coin denominations, a few of which still exist today.
- Five Guineas
Gold milled coin valued at 105 Shillings. Largest milled gold coin denomination. First produced in 1668 under Charles II and continued through until 1753 under George II.
- Triple Unite
Gold hammered coin valued at 60 shillings. Largest hammered gold coin denomination. Produced by Charles I between 1642 and 1644.
- Two Guineas
Gold coin valued at 42 Shillings. Minted in 1664 under Charles II through until 1753 under George II.
- Gold Guinea
Gold milled coin valued at 21 Shillings. Minted by Charles II from 1663, to replace the Unite Laurel Pound, until 1813 under George III. In 1817 George III replaced the Guinea with a new version of the Unite Laurel Pound which became known as the milled gold Sovereign.
Gold coin valued at 10 Shillings. Introduced by Henry VII to replace the Noble (6s-8d). The Ryal proved unpopular and was replaced by the Angel. Mary and Elizabeth I struck a fifteen Shilling Ryal. James I produced a Rose Ryal (2 Ryal coin valued at 20 or 22 Shillings) and a Spur Ryal (originally valued at 15 Shillings but increased to sixteen Shillings and sixpence (16s-6d) in 1612 following an increase in gold prices.
- Unite Laurel Pound (aka Sovereign or Double Ryal)
Gold hammered coin valued at valued at 20 shillings. First produced under Henry VIII through until 1662 under Charles II. Re-introduced in 1817, as a milled gold Sovereign, by George III in 1817.
- Half Guinea
Gold coin valued at 10 Shillings and Sixpence (10s-6d). First produced by Charles II in 1669 through until 1813 under George III.
- Half Laurel (aka Half Sovereign or Double Crown)
Silver hammered coin valued at 10 Shillings. The Double Crown first appeared during the reign of Henry VIII through Charles I reign (when some larger sized silver double crowns were produced) until 1662 under Charles II.
Gold coin originally valued at 6 Shillings and 8 pence (6s-8d) then increased to 10 Shillings during the reign of Edward VI (1547 1553). The Angel was introduced to replace the unpopular 10 Shilling Ryal during the reign of Edward IV (1461-1470). Angels were produced during the reign of James I and finally stopped in 1643 under Charles I.
Gold coin valued at 5 Shillings, later replaced by silver crowns. The first gold crowns were hammered coins minted during the reign of Henry VII (1485-1509) and much larger (over twice the size) silver coins between 1551 and 1553, during the reign of Edward VI (1547-1553) and both were produced into the Commonwealth period when Oliver Cromwell struck the last hammered gold crowns (1649-1657) and silver crowns (1649-1656) then produced the first milled silver Crown in 1658. In 1662, under Charles II, a regular series of milled silver crowns were produced, no gold coins were minted, and the Crown was the highest denomination silver coin. The last crown was produced 1965 under Elizabeth II.
- Half Angel
Gold coin originally valued at 3 Shillings and 3 pence (3s-4d), later increased to 3 Shillings and 9 pence (3s-9d) in 1526, under Henry VIII and increased again, under James I, to 5 shillings and Sixpence (5s6d) in 1612. First produced during the restoration of Henry VI (1470-1471) and finally ended in 1619.
- Half Crown
Originally a gold hammered coin valued at 2 Shillings and Sixpence (2s-6d), later silver then debased half crowns were minted. First minted during the reign of Henry VIII (1509-1547) and continued into the reign of James I (1603-1619) who also produced larger silver Half Crown between 1603 and 1625. Hammered silver Half Crowns were produced through the reign of Charles I and Charles II until 1660-1662. The first milled silver Half Crown was produced by Oliver Cromwell between 1656 and 1658 then carried on during the reign of Charles II with the last Half Crown minted in 1970 under Elizabeth II when Britain switched to a decimal system.
Originally a hammered silver coin valued at 12 pence (12d). First produced under Henry VII (1485-1509) as a “Testoon”. The final hammered Shillings were produced by Charles II between 1660-1662 after which Cromwell introduced the first milled Shilling coins in 1658 and carried right through until the last Shillings were minted in 1970 under Elizabeth II when Britain switched to a decimal system.
Orignally a silver hammered coin during the reign of Edward VI between 1547 and 1553. During the reign of Elizabeth I the first milled silver sixpence was produced between 1561-1571. Hammered sixpence coins also continued to be produced until Charles II in 1660-1662. Milled sixpence were produced by Cromwell in 1658 and later under Charles II right through until the last sixpence was minted under Elizabeth II in 1970.
Originally called a Groat, the Fourpence dates back to Edward I with the last hammered groat produced under Charles II in 1662 who then minted the first milled fourpence coins in 1670. The last fourpence coins made for general circulation were produced around 1763 under George III. Later issues were produced, probably as Maundy coins.
The silver Threepence was first issued under Edward VI and milled silver threepence coins were produced by Elizabeth I between 1561-1564. The last hammered threepence was produced by Charles II in 1660-1662 who then released the milled threepence series starting from 1670. George III released the last threepence for circulation in 1763 until it was reintroduced under Queen Victoria. The brass threepence was first released in 1936 and continued in production until decimalisation in 1970 under Elizabeth II.
- Twopence (Half Groat)
Hammered silver coin first produced in 1351, under Edward III, through until 1662 under Charles II, who minted the first milled twopence coins in 1668 through until the last regular minting for circulation in 1760 under George II. Twopence coins under George III in 1763 and later were produced for Maundy sets, not circulation, and are less common. The first copper twopence, nicknamed the “Cartwheel” was large and thick (41mm diameter and 5mm thick) and produced for just one year under George III in 1797. A bronze twopence coin was reintroduced with decimalisation in 1971 and is still produced, since 1992, made of copper-plated steel.
The silver Penny has been around since the reign of King Offa in 757 AD and was struck by at least 70 different mints. The penny was the only denomination produced in England until, under Henry III (1216-1272) a 20 pence coin was briefly struck. The last silver hammered pennies where produced, under Charles II, between 1660-1662. They were followed by milled penny coins around 1664/5. It was used as Maundy money but was also in circulation until George III when it was primarily Maundy coinage. A silver ceremonial Maundy penny is still minted today. The first copper penny coins were minted in 1797 under George III right through until decimalisation in 1970, under Elizabeth II, when it was replaced with small bronze penny coin in 1971 which was replaced with a copper-plated steel in 1992 and is still in production today.
- Half Penny
Hammered silver halfpence coins have been found under Henry I (1100-1135) and Henry III (1216-1272) before becoming more commonplace under Edward I (1272-1307) before the final hammered halfpence coins were struck during the Commonwealth (1649-1660). Charles II introduced a larger milled copper coin to replace it in 1672 which continued until 1754 (the end of the reign of George II). George III halfpence were produced intermittently along with many counterfeits. Under George IV and William V they were occasionally produced.
Under Queen Victoria the coin was regularly issued from 1833, called a Half Penny for the first time, right through until 1967. Decimalisation in 1971 saw the introduction of a new smaller bronze half penny which was produced until it was withdrawn from circulation in 1984.
Hammered silver farthing coins date from the reign of Henry III (1216-1272) but become a regular issue under Edward I (1271-1307) until they were suspended under Edward VI (1547-1553). Under James I of England (1603–1625) the farthing was issued as a larger hammered copper (or tin) coin by licensed individuals and this continued under Charles I. None were circulated during the Commonwealth. Under Charles II a slightly larger and much heavier milled copper coin was produced in 1672 through until the end of the reign of George II in 1754. Under George III farthings were produced between 1771-1775, 1799 and between 1806-1807. In 1821 under George IV it was produced regularly through until 1956 under Elizabeth II when it was withdrawn from circulation and ceased to be legal tender in 1960.
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